1. Federal v. Private
First thing you need to do is decide whether you want federal loans, private loans, or a combination of both.
If you’re an undergraduate borrowing on your own, go for a federal loan. Federal loans are generally safer than private loans—they’re less expensive and they have flexible repayment options. You can also avoid defaulting on them, which will protect your credit score.
How do they work? Put simply, the federal government pays the interest on federal subsidized loans, like the Stafford and Perkins loans. The government may also pay the interest during certain periods of deferment. And, depending on your loan and career choice, you may qualify for a loan forgiveness program.
Why would you choose a private loan? If your credit score is high—at least 740—and you have a co-signer, then some private loan options might work better for you than federal loans.
Compare fixed and variable rates—if you plan on paying off your loan longer than its term, some of those variable rates might be appealing to you. The
The 411 on Multidisciplinary Master’s Degrees
“The knowledge economy requires an adept workforce and cadre of leaders to help address the many challenges and needs facing companies, governments and societies worldwide,” according to a recent piece published in the academic journal, Palgrave Communications: “Many of the challenges we face today are new and there will undoubtedly be others arising in the future that will require innovative approaches and solutions to overcome them. No longer are higher education institutions able to train graduates to address all of the current and emerging challenges from a singular disciplinary source.”
Enter multidisciplinary studies. Rather than teaching students to look at a problem within one intensive yet narrow context, this growing field encourages them to draw on a broad range of sources and subject matter. Explains thePalgrave Communications article, “Higher education disciplinary approaches often tend to focus only on a set of trees within a great forest. While disciplinary experts are essential for understanding particular ways of knowing within specific fields of study, their perspectives in addressing larger and more complex issues is often limited.”
STEM Versus STEM
STEM is an acronym which brings together the four basic disciplines of science, technology, engineering and math. While educators have been combining these subjects in classrooms and curricula for decades, the STEM branding first emerged in the early 2000s. Countries all over the world have since established clear priorities aimed at inspiring more students to pursue STEM studies and the necessary skills they represent for the workforce.
Somewhere along the way STEM transitioned into STEAM. Now a widely adopted movement among schools, businesses, and individuals, STEAM proposes that artists — and the creativity they embody — are the key to driving innovation. Says STEM to STEAM, “In this climate of economic uncertainty, America is once again turning to innovation as the way to ensure a prosperous future…Yet innovation remains tightly coupled with Science, Technology, Engineering and Math – the STEM subjects. Art + Design are poised to transform our economy in the 21st century just as science and technology did in the last century.”
The “Secret Sauce”
The website Edutopia, meanwhile, goes so far as
1. You’ll increase your earning potential.
While many teaching jobs require master’s degrees, others may call for just a bachelor’s degree. In this case, getting the bare minimum can hurt you in several different ways. Not only does it lower your chances of getting hired when you’re up again more qualified applicants, but it also means you’ll likely end up collecting a higher starting salary.
According to The Houston Chronicle, most school districts offer teachers with master’s degrees across the elementary, middle, and high school levels supplemental pay in the form of a “bonus” or “bump.” According to analysis by the Center for American Progress this averages between an extra $3,000 and $10,000 a year! And while the cost of getting a master’s degree can seem prohibitive, the degree can pay for itself in just a few years. Not only that, but most school districts require continuing education credits — doesn’t it make sense to put those credits toward a degree?
2. You’ll enjoy greater career mobility.
While a bachelor’s degree may qualify you to be a classroom teacher, many other school jobs require advanced credentials. If career advancement is important to you, a
Why Digital Innovation Matters
Contemporary business success largely hinges on an organization’s ability to adapt to the rapidly evolving digital space. Take companies like Amazon and Netflix, for example. Their business models inherently rely on continuously expanding and enhancing their digital products and services to remain competitive. But this evolution doesn’t happen on its own.
Says global management consulting firm North Highland Worldwide Consulting’s Alex Bombeck, “Everyone recognizes the importance of digital in today’s business environment, but the landscape is littered by companies that have been left behind the digital curve. Leaders must figure out how to meet the high expectations of customers and deliver a unique human experience, or risk becoming obsolete.”
In addition to the usual suspects of leadership like vision and managerial skills, the next generation of business leaders will also need to understand the fundamentals of digital innovation, including the economic and technological factors powering it; the intersection of former, current and future business models; differences between digital models and how they interact with each other; best practices for organizing and leading digital product and service innovation efforts; the role of crowdsourcing; and other topics.
Echoes North Highland Global CIO
You Can Improve Your Career Opportunities
Do your research. If your prospective master’s degree is tied to a specific type of job that you want, then you’ll definitely have a broader reach of opportunity. Consider occupational therapy, in which a master’s degree is the key to success, or business management, where that MBA will certainly give you a competitive edge. Public school teachers will experience almost immediate benefits with a master’s. In some fields, where a master’s is a terminal degree, such as an M.F.A., you’ll be able to teach at the university level. Clinical psychology is another great example of pursuing a master’s in a specific field so that you can do the job you want.
You Can Earn a Better Salary
A graduate degree doesn’t always mean extra money, but in some fields, it’s the only way to make more of it. If you choose to study medicine or law, of course, you’ll need an advanced degree, but those of you who have your bachelor’s and are contemplating the endeavor? You can plan on making at least $400,000 more over your working lifetime with a graduate degree. Teaching is one profession for which
Africa: Half of a Yellow Sun, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Written in 2006, Adichie’s wrenching tale chronicles five people’s lives as they navigate politics, power, academics, journalism, women’s rights, marriage, and the struggle for daily survival during Nigeria’s Civil War in the late 1960s. How blurred are the lines between life and death? What does it mean to be in love? How does war affect humanity—and its soul?
Asia: Flowers in the Mirror, Li Ruzhen
A Chinese classic on feminism, circa 1827. While the Qing Dynasty period wasn’t known for embracing femininity, the author was. Ruzhen offers us a subversion of gender roles in a fantasy classic—often with a humorous twist. He believed in equal rights for men and women and wrote Flowers in the Mirror as one fantastical version of what that kind of world could look like.
Europe: The Shadow of the Wind, Carlos Ruiz Zafón
Travel to Barcelona, on Zafón’s meticulously detailed streets with young Daniel in 1945, just after the Spanish Civil War. Pick up an obscure, tattered book in the Cemetery of Forgotten Books and join Daniel on a dangerous mystery that will take you throughout past
1. Digital skills open diverse doors.
Do a quick internet search of the words “digital skills,” and you’ll turn up countless articles on “essential,” “must-have” and “top” digital skills employers are looking for today. At the same time, US staffing and solutions company the Adecco Group reveals that 92 percent of employees aren’t prepared to navigate the contemporary business world. Claiming top four spots on the list of skills executives think workers lack? Technical and software skills.
But that’s not all, insists The Guardian, “It’s not just the scale and pace of the digital revolution that makes it exciting; it’s also the fact that it’s being democratized. No longer reserved for IT departments and tech companies, digital is becoming a critical part of every industry and is opening up opportunities across sectors, whether it’s top surgeons video linking into operating theatres from abroad or targeted mobile advertising based on clothes you’re trying on in real time.”
So whether you want to be a teacher, doctor, businessperson, lawyer, journalist, or one of a million other possible career paths, skills like SEO, coding, video editing, imaging editing, blogging and others are quickly moving from the category of
1. Work-Life Balance
What is it, you wonder? Achieve something at work. Enjoy something at work. Achieve something at home. Enjoy something at home. For the mathematically inclined:
Aw + Ew + Ah + Eh = Work Life Balance.
What does this mean? Working and living are never truly balanced—there are no coefficients or constants to guide you through the process. Sometimes you’ll achieve and enjoy something more at work than you will at home. What’s important is that all aspects of achievement and enjoyment in work and life happen throughout the day. Some days—as you know—are harder than others.
Here’s an example: you might have a fantastic interaction with a persnickety coworker (achievement) and then laugh at a joke at a board meeting (enjoyment), followed by not tripping over a pile of laundry in the middle of the floor when you get home (achievement) and meeting a friend for dinner (enjoyment). These achievements and enjoyments do not have the same weights. That great conversation with that persnickety coworker might be the biggest achievement because you know he’ll probably invite you to work on that project you’ve been wanting to work on with him.
1. Indigenous studies offer a more comprehensive and honest representation of history.
According to Danielle Lorenz, a PhD candidate in educational policy studies, the best way to remedy ongoing ignorance and stereotypes about indigenous people is through indigenous studies. In addition to fascinating coursework in diverse areas ranging from literature to traditional ecological knowledge, Lorenz points out that there are more general takeaways for students in this field: “They can learn about the accomplishments and contributions Indigenous peoples have made to global society, they can learn that Indigenous peoples in North America survived the world’s worst holocaust, they can learn about the true history of Canada – not as peaceful (or dull) as commonly thought, and they can learn that, today, while challenges exist – Indigenous peoples are more than just their ‘issues.’”
2. Indigenous studies are interdisciplinary.
Indigenous studies comprise a breadth and depth of academic fields the humanities, social sciences and beyond. Not only do students learn how to integrate this information in order to broaden their worldviews, but in doing so they also hone and refine their critical thinking skills.
These skills aren’t just applicable to directly related work in areas
Passion for sports comes first, above all else. That’s why the Johan Cruyff Institute requires that its students care deeply about sports—many of the students are athletes themselves. The Johan Cruyff Institute offers students the unique opportunity to translate passion for a sport into growth, development, and business acumen. According to Johan Cruyff, the founder of the Institute, “My vision on sport management is quite simple. I think people with a passion for sport are the best to lead sport organizations.” Without it, why focus on sports? Those who love the sport do well by their charges.
At the heart of the Johan Cruyff Institute’s educational model: learning by doing. The Institute offers a Corporate Internship Program that places students at the heart of the sports industry. Students access the behind-the-scenes work of sports management, and experience the reality of what it means to management a sports team. Students gain the skills necessary to compete in tight job markets—adapted to their passions, interests, skills, and needs. Additionally, students have the opportunities to learn from and interact with faculty directly from the sports industry.
3. Global Awareness
Sporting is international—different
A master’s in biostatistics will earn you a median salary of about $113,400, according to Fortune, with at least a 20 percent projected job growth by 2022.
If those statistics aren’t enough to motivate you, how about this: biostatisticians help save the world. Your ability to make lasting, positive changes in public health, clinical medicine, genomics, health economics—and the raw field of mathematics is essentially limitless. So: if you have the science and math savvy, want to save the world, and live a pretty comfortable life on top of that, consider biostatistics.
Learn more about biostatistics and biotechnology.
2. Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the study of how people interface with computers. From algorithm science to information science, psychology to anthropology, you could work on anything from projects related to design guidelines for all types of software to academic research to figuring out the best interface for human-robot interaction. With humans interacting with mobile and touch devices, you can also delve into the intricacies of human-computer interface.
3. Homeland Security and Cyber Criminality
If current world events don’t have your head spinning,
1. Duration of Study
While the typical master’s degree in the US takes two years, master’s degrees in the UK and Australia can be completed in a much shorter amount of time — many in as little as a year. A PhD, meanwhile, takes around three years in the UK and Australia — compared to five in the US. Not only can trimming time off your degree amp up your earning potential by getting you into the workforce sooner, but you’ll also save money on tuition and living expenses due to the shorter duration.
Because US degrees graduate degrees are spread over two years, they are often broader in nature — at least in the beginning. This can be an advantage for students looking for the freedom to explore different specializations and areas of research. In the UK, meanwhile, degrees are more specialized and self-directed. Students who already know what they want to focus on can immediately begin directing their efforts into this area and finish up sooner.
Not only will you pay less due to the shorter degree duration, but tuition fees in the UK and Australia are
1. Money ≠ Happiness
A 2010 study by Tim Judge shows what we’ve heard all along: money doesn’t buy happiness. If you study something that you don’t enjoy in the hopes of getting a job that you don’t enjoy, but that pays well, there’s a good chance, you won’t be happy. You’ll just have lots of money. The results of that study show that the correlation between salary and job satisfaction is weak. Corollary: if you want to engage with your job, money isn’t the answer—it doesn’t buy engagement (see #2).
You can go through the motions of a job or course of study for which you don’t care and do just fine. But why would you want to? You can pursue something you love and have a job you like less—but the ideal? Pursue something you love, engage in it, and let it drive your job search and your life. Studies show that to be engaged in your work, you need to find something that gives you meaning and that you enjoy doing. The desire to do what you want will allow you to engage in your work and feel inspired (see
1. You don’t need a degree in the field.
Degrees in comedy are few and far between. And while the value of programs like the University of Kent’s MA in Stand Up Comedy is undeniable (any working comedian will tell you that practice makes perfect), there are also plenty of ways to get the experience you need on and around campus. In fact, taking different coursework — for example, political science studies — can give you upper-level insights….and plenty of fresh material.
But even if you don’t do any of these things in college, you can still pursue a career in comedy. Rodney Dangerfield, Ricky Gervais, Phyllis Diller, Larry David and Lisa Lampanelli are just a few examples of famous comedians who started late.
2. Extracurriculars can pave the path.
Joining a college sketch group, taking an improv class, and attending comedy performances can all help you start creating and honing your craft. If your college doesn’t have a sketch or improv group, consider starting your own. In addition to building your skills amidst like-minded comedy lovers, you’ll also score extra points for leadership.
An added bonus? As Matt Lappin, segment producer on
1. Fast-growing Economic Sector
One of the fastest growing sectors not just in tourism, but in the whole economy, sustainable tourism stimulates economic growth and job creation. When tourism is “sustainable,” there is an implied permanence—and a conservation of resources. As sustainable tourism takes off, the need for jobs to protect wildlife, biodiversity, and fragile ecosystems for people to visit becomes clear—as does the need for experts who can act as “tour guides” of a sustainable tourist destination.
2. Tourism Linked to Development
Sustainable tourism generates jobs, which generates increases in incomes, which creates options for people—and allows them to improve their quality of life.
Consider the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development (AKFED), an international development agency that promotes private entrepreneurship in the developing world. One of their subsidiaries includes Tourism Promotion Services, which owns and manages 26 hotels, resorts, lodges, and camps in Africa and Asia—all under one brand name. Their goal? To catalyze local growth of private sector ventures by coalescing international investment, business skills, and local knowledge. AKFED focuses on using local or regional suppliers whenever possible, relying on local networks, offering internship opportunities for local youth, and building local
1.Hildegard of Bingen
She lived most of her life in solitude in a hilltop Rhineland monastery more than 900 years ago, but her legacy is a lasting one. According to Classic FM, “This remarkable woman had left behind a treasure-trove of illuminated manuscripts, scholarly writings and songs written for her nuns to sing at their devotions.” And yet her name didn’t even appear in a reference book prior to 1979.
While in her lifetime Hildegard’s work was never heard beyond the walls of the remote convent where she lived, Today, she is regarded as one of the first known composers of music in Western history, and praised for her “sublime, life-affirming” music. After all, how many 12th century works can claim contemporary hit status? That’s exactly what Hildegard accomplished when her song A Feather on the Breath of God sung by soprano Emma Kirby enjoyed popular success in the 1980s.
2. Sofonisba Anguissola
The life of a female artist during the Renaissance and Baroque periods was anything but easy. While their male counterparts were being heralded as virtuoso, AKA “mortal Gods,” they were denied by critics who regarded them as the “passive sex” and
1. STEM and Design
STEM and design go hand-in hand. Design work requires critical thinking and planning to solve complicated, community-based problems. When STEM students consider projects like building a self-propelled vehicle, or designing a sustainable garden ecosystem, they need to draw on their scientific knowledge in addition to their design knowledge.
When Steve Jobs designed the first Macintosh computers, he cared as much about the engineering and programming as he did about the aesthetic and form of the product—that the appearance of the product should match the seamlessness of the math and science behind it—even down to the font.
2. Business and Design
A great business idea isn’t going to work without great design. They go hand-in-hand. At the center of any business plan is user experience, or UX. Design helps business students understand how user experience and design interface are related. Business majors should focus on learning UX principles. What does this mean?
Make your product data-driven. Test and tweak your product until your data shows which UX configurations work the best. This way, users tell you about their experience, and you design based on that.
Practice. Mockup your design
The global market for smart cities is projected to skyrocket to US$1.2 trillion by the year 2020, according to a report from Global Industry Analysts, Inc. The potential benefits of smart cities are many, including higher quality of life, more equitable opportunities for all; unparalleled social, environmental and economic growth; increased participation from smart citizens; massive consumption reductions in both energy and water; and enhanced interconnectivity, communication and response, including during natural and manmade calamities.
All of which begs the question: What, exactly, is a smart city? In setting out to answer this question, The Pew Charitable Trusts ultimately came up with the following conclusion: It depends on who you ask.
Brooks Rainwater of the National League of Cities told Pew, “The concept of a smart city is somewhat amorphous, but it’s focused on cities leading with technological innovation,” while Jesse Berst of the Smart Cities Council said, ““It’s just using digital technology to improve community life.” Kansas City’s innovation analyst Kate Garman summed it up as “a paradigm shift in the way we think.”
The Hindu Times, meanwhile, offers the following, more specific definition: “A ‘smart city’ is an urban region that is highly
What are Atmospheric Sciences?
NASA defines atmospheric science as “the study of the physics and chemistry of clouds, gases, and aerosols (airborne particles) that surround the planetary bodies of the solar system.” It comprises a number of specialties, including climatology; dynamic meteorology; cloud physics, atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric physics; aeronomy; and oceanography.
Graduates with degrees in atmospheric sciences can be found working in a broad range of environments, including for the government, private weather services, the media, commercial airlines, state governments, colleges and universities, public utility companies, consulting firms, and aircraft and instrument manufacturing companies across areas comprising field research, laboratory studies, and computer analysis and modeling.
Why Atmospheric Sciences Matter
Barring the opinions of climate change disbelievers, hard science tells us that climate change is not only very real, but it’s packing a wallop in the form of extreme and unprecedented weather.
Explains Dr. Antti Lauri, Programme Director of the Atmospheric Sciences Master’s Programme at Finland’s University of Helsinki, “Hurricanes get their energy from condensation of water vapor over warm tropical oceans. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases act to warm the atmosphere and the oceans. This leads to larger evaporation from the